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Tutorial by:Rizwan Abdullah Date: 2016-06-16 01:51:15

In Python, we can implement a matrix as nested list (list inside a list). We can treat each element as a row of the matrix. For example `X = [[1, 2], [4, 5], [3, 6]]`

would represent a 3x2 matrix. First row can be selected as `X[0]`

and the element in first row, first column can be selected as `X[0][0]`

.

We can perform matrix addition in various ways in Python. Here are a couple of them.

```
# Program to add two matrices using nested loop
X = [[12,7,3],
[4 ,5,6],
[7 ,8,9]]
Y = [[5,8,1],
[6,7,3],
[4,5,9]]
result = [[0,0,0],
[0,0,0],
[0,0,0]]
# iterate through rows
for i in range(len(X)):
# iterate through columns
for j in range(len(X[0])):
result[i][j] = X[i][j] + Y[i][j]
for r in result:
print(r)
```

**Output**

[17, 15, 4] [10, 12, 9] [11, 13, 18]

**Explanation**

In this program we have used nested `for`

loops to iterate through each row and each column. At each point we add the corresponding elements in the two matrices and store it in the result.

```
# Program to add two matrices
# using list comprehension
X = [[12,7,3],
[4 ,5,6],
[7 ,8,9]]
Y = [[5,8,1],
[6,7,3],
[4,5,9]]
result = [[X[i][j] + Y[i][j] for j in range(len(X[0]))] for i in range(len(X))]
for r in result:
print(r)
```

The output of this program is the same as above. We have used nested list comprehension to iterate through each element in the matrix. List comprehension allows us to write concise codes and we must try to use them frequently in Python. They are very helpful.