Inheritance is a powerful feature in object oriented programming. It refers to defining a new class with little or no modification to an existing class. The new class is called derived (or child) class and the one from which it inherits is called the base (or parent) class. Derived class inherits features from the base class, adding new features to it. This results into re-usability of code.
Python Inheritance Syntax
class DerivedClass(BaseClass): body_of_derived_class
Example of Inheritance in Python
To demonstrate the use of inheritance, let us take an example. A polygon is a closed figure with 3 or more sides. Say, we have a class called
Polygon defined as follows.
class Polygon: def __init__(self, no_of_sides): self.n = no_of_sides self.sides = [0 for i in range(no_of_sides)] def inputSides(self): self.sides = [float(input("Enter side "+str(i+1)+" : ")) for i in range(self.n)] def dispSides(self): for i in range(self.n): print("Side",i+1,"is",self.sides[i])
This class has data attributes to store the number of sides, n and magnitude of each side as a list, sides. Method
inputSides() takes in magnitude of each side and similarly,
dispSides() will display these properly.
A triangle is a polygon with 3 sides. So, we can created a class called
Triangle which inherits from
Polygon. This makes all the attributes available in class
Polygon readily available in
Triangle. We don't need to define them again (code re-usability).
Triangle is defined as follows.
class Triangle(Polygon): def __init__(self): Polygon.__init__(self,3) def findArea(self): a, b, c = self.sides # calculate the semi-perimeter s = (a + b + c) / 2 area = (s*(s-a)*(s-b)*(s-c)) ** 0.5 print('The area of the triangle is %0.2f' %area)
Triangle has a new method
findArea() to find and print the area of the triangle. Here is a sample run.
>>> t = Triangle() >>> t.inputSides() Enter side 1 : 3 Enter side 2 : 5 Enter side 3 : 4 >>> t.dispSides() Side 1 is 3.0 Side 2 is 5.0 Side 3 is 4.0 >>> t.findArea() The area of the triangle is 6.00
We can see that, even though we did not define methods like
dispSides() for class
Triangle, we were able to use them. If an attribute is not found in the class, search continues to the base class. This repeats recursively, if the base class is itself derived from other classes.
Method Overriding in Python
In the above example, notice that
__init__() method was defined in both classes,
Triangle as well
Polygon. When this happens, the method in the derived class overrides that in the base class. This is to say,
Triangle gets preference over the same in
Polygon. Generally when overriding a base method, we tend to extend the definition rather than simply replace it. The same is being done by calling the method in base class from the one in derived class (calling
Triangle). A better option would be to use the built-in function
super().__init(3) is equivalent to
Polygon.__init__(self,3) and is preferred. You can learn more about the super() function in Python.
Two built-in functions
issubclass() are used to check inheritances. Function
True if the object is an instance of the class or other classes derived from it. Each and every class in Python inherits from the base class
>>> isinstance(t,Triangle) True >>> isinstance(t,Polygon) True >>> isinstance(t,int) False >>> isinstance(t,object) True
issubclass() is used to check for class inheritance.
>>> issubclass(Polygon,Triangle) False >>> issubclass(Triangle,Polygon) True >>> issubclass(bool,int) True