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PostgreSQL : PostgreSQL C tutorial

Tutorial by:      Date: 2016-04-19 01:04:17

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About PostgreSQL database

PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source, object-relational database system. It is a multi-user database management system. It runs on multiple platforms, including Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, Microsoft Windows, and Mac OS X. PostgreSQL is developed by the PostgreSQL Global Development Group.

PostgreSQL has sophisticated features such as Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC), point in time recovery, tablespaces, asynchronous replication, nested transactions (savepoints), online/hot backups, a sophisticated query planner/optimizer, and write ahead logging for fault tolerance. It supports international character sets, multibyte character encodings, Unicode, and it is locale-aware for sorting, case-sensitivity, and formatting.

Installation

We are going to install PostgreSQL database and the C development library.

$ sudo apt-get install postgresql

On a Debian-based system, we can install the PostgreSQL database from the packages using the above command.

$ sudo update-rc.d -f postgresql remove

 Removing any system startup links for /etc/init.d/postgresql ...

   /etc/rc0.d/K21postgresql

   /etc/rc1.d/K21postgresql

   /etc/rc2.d/S19postgresql

   /etc/rc3.d/S19postgresql

   /etc/rc4.d/S19postgresql

   /etc/rc5.d/S19postgresql

   /etc/rc6.d/K21postgresql

If we install the PostgreSQL database from packages, it is automatically added to the startup scripts of the operating system. If we are only learning to work with the database, it is unnecessary to start the database each time we boot the system. The above command removes any system startup links for the PostgreSQL database.

$ sudo apt-get install libpq-dev

To be able to compile C examples, we need to install the PostgreSQL C development libraries. The above line shows how we can do it on Debian-based Linux.

$ sudo -u postgres psql postgres

psql (9.3.9)

Type "help" for help.

 

postgres=# \password postgres

We set a password for the postgres user.

Starting and stopping PostgreSQL

In the next section, we are going to show how to start the PostgreSQL database, stop it, and query its status.

$ sudo service postgresql start

 * Starting PostgreSQL 9.3 database server     [ OK ]

On Debian-based Linux, we can start the server with the service postgresql start command.

$ sudo service postgresql status

9.3/main (port 5432): online

We use the service postgresql status command to check if PostgreSQL is running.

$ sudo service postgresql stop

 * Stopping PostgreSQL 9.3 database server     [ OK ]

We use the service postgresql stop command to stop PostgreSQL.

$ service postgresql status

9.3/main (port 5432): down

At this moment, the service postgresql status command reports that the PostgreSQL database is down.

Creating a user and a database

In the following steps, we create a new database user and database.

$ sudo -u postgres createuser janbodnar

We create a new role in the PostgreSQL system. We allow it to have ability to create new databases. A role is a user in a database world. Roles are separate from operating system users.

$ sudo -u postgres psql postgres

psql (9.3.9)

Type "help" for help.

 

postgres=# ALTER USER janbodnar WITH password 'pswd37';

ALTER ROLE

postgres=# \q

With the psql command, we add a password for the new user.

PostgreSQL often uses trust or peer authentication policies on local connections. In case of the trust authentication policy, PostgreSQL assumes that anyone who can connect to the server is authorized to access the database with whatever database user name they specify (even superuser names). When making connections to the database, no password is required. (The restrictions made in the database and user columns still apply.) The trust authentication is appropriate and very convenient for local connections on a single-user workstation. It is usually not appropriate on a multiuser machine. In case of the peer authentication policy, the database username must match the operating system username.

$ sudo -u postgres createdb testdb --owner janbodnar

With the createdb command, we create a new database called testdb. Its owner is the new database user.

C99

This tutorial uses C99. For GNU C compiler, we need to add the -std=c99 option. For Windows users, the Pelles C IDE is highly recommended. (MSVC does not support C99.)

PGconn *conn = PQconnectdb("user=janbodnar dbname=testdb");

In C99, we can mix declarations with code. In older C programs, we would need to separate this line into two lines.

for(int i=0; i<rows; i++) {

We can also use initial for loop declarations.

The libpq library

The libpq library is the C interface to PostgreSQL. It is a set of library functions that allow client programs to interact with PostgreSQL. It is also the underlying engine for several other PostgreSQL application interfaces, including those written for C++, Perl, PHP, Ruby, Python, and Tcl.

lib_version.c

#include <stdio.h>

#include <libpq-fe.h>

 

int main() {

   

    int lib_ver = PQlibVersion();

 

    printf("Version of libpq: %d\n", lib_ver);

   

    return 0;

}

The program prints the version of the libpq library.

#include <libpq-fe.h>

The libpq-fe.h file contains definitions of enumerations, structures, constants, and functions of the C programming interface.

int lib_ver = PQlibVersion();

The PQlibVersion() function returns the version of the libpq being used.

$ pg_config --includedir

/usr/include/postgresql

$ pg_config --libdir

/usr/lib

The pg_config tool is used to find out the location of the C header files and object code libraries.

$ gcc -o lib_version lib_version.c -I/usr/include/postgresql -lpq -std=c99

With the above command, we compile the program.

$ ./lib_version

Version of libpq: 90309

The version of the library is 9.3.9.

Server version

In the following example, we find out the version of the PostgreSQL database.

server_version.c

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <libpq-fe.h>

 

void do_exit(PGconn *conn) {

   

    PQfinish(conn);

    exit(1);

}

 

int main() {

   

    PGconn *conn = PQconnectdb("user=janbodnar dbname=testdb");

 

    if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD) {

       

        fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database failed: %s\n",

            PQerrorMessage(conn));

        do_exit(conn);

    }

 

    int ver = PQserverVersion(conn);

 

    printf("Server version: %d\n", ver);

   

    PQfinish(conn);

 

    return 0;

}

The example connects to the PostgreSQL database, executes a PQserverVersion() function, prints the version, closes the connection, and cleans up.

...

# TYPE  DATABASE        USER            ADDRESS                 METHOD

 

# "local" is for Unix domain socket connections only

local   all             all                                     peer

...

In the pg_hba.conf, we have the peer default authentication method. In this method, the database user name must match the operating system user name. No password is required to make a connection.

PGconn *conn = PQconnectdb("user=janbodnar dbname=testdb");

With the PQconnectdb() function, we make a connection to the database. In the connection string, we provide the user name and the database name.

if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD) {

   

    fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database failed: %s",

        PQerrorMessage(conn));

    do_exit(conn);

}

The PQstatus() function returns the status of the connection. In case of a successfull connection, CONNECTION_OK is returned; for unsuccessfull connection, CONNECTION_BAD is returned. The PQerrorMessage() returns the most recently generated error message.

int ver = PQserverVersion(conn);

The PQserverVersion() function returns an integer representing the PostgreSQL database version. It takes the connection object as a parameter.

PQfinish(conn);

The PQfinish() function closes the connection to the server and frees the memory used by the PGconn object.

$ ./server_version

Server version: 90309

Running the program, we get the database server version.

Authentication with a password

Next, we are going to authenticate to the database server with a password. In all other examples in this tutorial, we assume the peer or trust authentication mode. We change the authentication type for the local connection inside the pg_hba.conf file to md5.

$ sudo service postgresql restart

To apply the changes, the database server must be restarted.

password_authentication.c

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <libpq-fe.h>

 

void do_exit(PGconn *conn) {

   

    PQfinish(conn);

    exit(1);

}

 

int main() {

   

    PGconn *conn = PQconnectdb("user=janbodnar password=pswd37 dbname=testdb");

 

    if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD) {

       

        fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database failed: %s\n",

            PQerrorMessage(conn));

        do_exit(conn);

    }

   

    char *user = PQuser(conn);

    char *db_name = PQdb(conn);

    char *pswd = PQpass(conn);

   

    printf("User: %s\n", user);

    printf("Database name: %s\n", db_name);

    printf("Password: %s\n", pswd);

   

    PQfinish(conn);

 

    return 0;

}

In the example, we connect to the database with a password. We print the username, database name, and the password of the current database connection.

PGconn *conn = PQconnectdb("user=janbodnar password=pswd37 dbname=testdb");

In the connection string, we add the password option.

char *user = PQuser(conn);

The PQuser() function returns the user name of the connection.

char *db_name = PQdb(conn);

The PQdb() function returns the database name of the connection.

char *pswd = PQpass(conn);

The PQpass() function returns the password of the connection.

$ ./password_authentication

User: janbodnar

Database name: testdb

Password: pswd37

The program prints the database user, the database name, and the password used.

Creating a database table

In this section, we create a database table and fill it with data.

create_table.c

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <libpq-fe.h>

 

void do_exit(PGconn *conn, PGresult *res) {

   

    fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", PQerrorMessage(conn));   

 

    PQclear(res);

    PQfinish(conn);   

   

    exit(1);

}

 

int main() {

   

    PGconn *conn = PQconnectdb("user=janbodnar dbname=testdb");

 

    if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD) {

       

        fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database failed: %s\n",

            PQerrorMessage(conn));

           

        PQfinish(conn);

        exit(1);

    }

 

    PGresult *res = PQexec(conn, "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS Cars");

   

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

        do_exit(conn, res);

    }

   

    PQclear(res);

   

    res = PQexec(conn, "CREATE TABLE Cars(Id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY," \

        "Name VARCHAR(20), Price INT)");

       

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

        do_exit(conn, res);

    }

   

    PQclear(res);

   

    res = PQexec(conn, "INSERT INTO Cars VALUES(1,'Audi',52642)");

       

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK)

        do_exit(conn, res);    

   

    PQclear(res);   

   

    res = PQexec(conn, "INSERT INTO Cars VALUES(2,'Mercedes',57127)");

       

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

        do_exit(conn, res);  

    }

   

    PQclear(res);   

   

    res = PQexec(conn, "INSERT INTO Cars VALUES(3,'Skoda',9000)");

       

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

        do_exit(conn, res);  

    }

   

    PQclear(res); 

   

    res = PQexec(conn, "INSERT INTO Cars VALUES(4,'Volvo',29000)");

       

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

        do_exit(conn, res);  

    }

   

    PQclear(res);     

   

    res = PQexec(conn, "INSERT INTO Cars VALUES(5,'Bentley',350000)");

       

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

        do_exit(conn, res);  

    }

   

    PQclear(res); 

   

    res = PQexec(conn, "INSERT INTO Cars VALUES(6,'Citroen',21000)");

       

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

        do_exit(conn, res);  

    }

   

    PQclear(res); 

   

    res = PQexec(conn, "INSERT INTO Cars VALUES(7,'Hummer',41400)");

       

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

        do_exit(conn, res);  

    }

   

    PQclear(res); 

   

    res = PQexec(conn, "INSERT INTO Cars VALUES(8,'Volkswagen',21600)");

       

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

        do_exit(conn, res);  

    }

   

    PQclear(res); 

    PQfinish(conn);

 

    return 0;

}

The created table is called Cars and it has three columns: the Id, the name of the car, and its price.

PGresult *res = PQexec(conn, "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS Cars");

The PQexec() function submits an SQL command to the server and waits for the result. The PGresult encapsulates the result of a query. Our SQL command drops a table if it already exists.

if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

    do_exit(conn, res);

}

The PQresultStatus() function should be called to check the return value for any errors. The PGRES_COMMAND_OK is returned if the command was properly executed and it does not return data.

PQclear(res);

Every command result should be freed with the PQclear() function when it is no longer needed.

$ ./create_table

$ psql testdb

psql (9.3.9)

Type "help" for help.

 

testdb=> SELECT * FROM Cars;

 id |    name    | price 

----+------------+--------

  1 | Audi       |  52642

  2 | Mercedes   |  57127

  3 | Skoda      |   9000

  4 | Volvo      |  29000

  5 | Bentley    | 350000

  6 | Citroen    |  21000

  7 | Hummer     |  41400

  8 | Volkswagen |  21600

(8 rows)

We execute the program and verify the created table with the psql tool.

Simple query

In this section, we execute a simple query command.

query_version.c

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <libpq-fe.h>

 

void do_exit(PGconn *conn) {

   

    PQfinish(conn);

    exit(1);

}

 

int main() {

   

    PGconn *conn = PQconnectdb("user=janbodnar dbname=testdb");

 

    if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD) {

       

        fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database failed: %s\n",

            PQerrorMessage(conn));

        do_exit(conn);

    }

 

    PGresult *res = PQexec(conn, "SELECT VERSION()");   

   

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_TUPLES_OK) {

 

        printf("No data retrieved\n");       

        PQclear(res);

        do_exit(conn);

    }   

 

    printf("%s\n", PQgetvalue(res, 0, 0));

 

    PQclear(res);

    PQfinish(conn);

 

    return 0;

}

The example gets the version of the database server.

PGresult *res = PQexec(conn, "SELECT VERSION()");

The SELECT VERSION() SQL statement retrieves the version of the database.

if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_TUPLES_OK) {

 

    printf("No data retrieved\n");       

    PQclear(res);

    do_exit(conn);

}   

The PGRES_TUPLES_OK is returned for a query that returns data by the PQresultStatus() function.

printf("%s\n", PQgetvalue(res, 0, 0));

The PQgetvalue() function returns a single field value of one row of a PGresult.

$ ./query_version

PostgreSQL 9.3.9 on x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu, compiled by gcc (Ubuntu 4.8.4-2ubuntu1~14.04) 4.8.4, 64-bit

The program prints this output.

Retrieving multiple rows of data

The following example executes a query that returns multiple rows of data.

multiple_rows.c

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <libpq-fe.h>

 

void do_exit(PGconn *conn) {

   

    PQfinish(conn);

    exit(1);

}

 

int main() {

   

    PGconn *conn = PQconnectdb("user=janbodnar dbname=testdb");

 

    if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD) {

       

        fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database failed: %s\n",

            PQerrorMessage(conn));

        do_exit(conn);

    }

 

    PGresult *res = PQexec(conn, "SELECT * FROM Cars LIMIT 5");   

   

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_TUPLES_OK) {

 

        printf("No data retrieved\n");       

        PQclear(res);

        do_exit(conn);

    }   

   

    int rows = PQntuples(res);

   

    for(int i=0; i<rows; i++) {

       

        printf("%s %s %s\n", PQgetvalue(res, i, 0),

            PQgetvalue(res, i, 1), PQgetvalue(res, i, 2));

    }   

 

    PQclear(res);

    PQfinish(conn);

 

    return 0;

}

The program prints the data of the first five rows of the Cars table.

PGresult *res = PQexec(conn, "SELECT * FROM Cars LIMIT 5");

This SQL query returns five rows of data.

int rows = PQntuples(res);

The PQntuples() returns the number of rows in the query result.

for(int i=0; i<rows; i++) {

    

    printf("%s %s %s\n", PQgetvalue(res, i, 0),

        PQgetvalue(res, i, 1), PQgetvalue(res, i, 2));

}   

In the for loop, we get all three fields of a row with the PQgetvalue() function.

$ ./multiple_rows

1 Audi 52642

2 Mercedes 57127

3 Skoda 9000

4 Volvo 29000

5 Bentley 350000

This is the output of the multiple_rows program.

Prepared statements

Prepared statements guard against SQL injections and increase performance. When using prepared statements, we use placeholders instead of directly writing the values into the statements.

prepared_statement.c

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <libpq-fe.h>

 

void do_exit(PGconn *conn) {

   

    PQfinish(conn);

    exit(1);

}

 

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {

   

    const int LEN = 10;

    const char *paramValues[1];

   

    if (argc != 2) {

   

        fprintf(stderr, "Usage: prepared_statement rowId\n");

        exit(1);

    }

   

    int rowId;

    int ret = sscanf(argv[1], "%d", &rowId);

   

    if (ret != 1) {

        fprintf(stderr, "The argument must be an integer\n");

        exit(1);

    }

   

    if (rowId < 0) {

        fprintf(stderr, "Error passing a negative rowId\n");

        exit(1);       

    }

  

    char str[LEN];

    snprintf(str, LEN, "%d", rowId); 

    paramValues[0] = str; 

   

    PGconn *conn = PQconnectdb("user=janbodnar dbname=testdb");

 

    if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD) {

       

        fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database failed: %s\n",

            PQerrorMessage(conn));

        do_exit(conn);

    }

   

    char *stm = "SELECT * FROM Cars WHERE Id=$1";

    PGresult *res = PQexecParams(conn, stm, 1, NULL, paramValues,

        NULL, NULL, 0);   

   

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_TUPLES_OK) {

 

        printf("No data retrieved\n");       

        PQclear(res);

        do_exit(conn);

    }   

 

    printf("%s %s %s\n", PQgetvalue(res, 0, 0),

        PQgetvalue(res, 0, 1), PQgetvalue(res, 0, 2));   

 

    PQclear(res);

    PQfinish(conn);

 

    return 0;

}

The program takes a row Id as its argument. It fetches the data of the specified row and prints it. Since the program takes a value from a user, which cannot be trusted, we must sanitize the input data. A prepared statement is created with a PQexecParams() function.

int rowId;

int ret = sscanf(argv[1], "%d", &rowId);

The command line argument is stored in the rowId variable. We expect an integer value.

char str[LEN];

snprintf(str, LEN, "%d", rowId); 

paramValues[0] = str; 

The value is transformed into a string and passed to an array of characters. The paramValues is a parameter of the PQexecParams() function.

char *stm = "SELECT * FROM Cars WHERE Id=$1";

This is our SQL statement, which returns one row of the Cars table. The $1 is a placeholder, which is later filled with an actual value.

PGresult *res = PQexecParams(conn, stm, 1, NULL, paramValues,

    NULL, NULL, 0);  

The PQexecParams() function creates a prepared statement and executes it. The second parameter is the SQL statement. The third parameter is the number of parameters passed. Passing NULL to the fourth parameter means that the server should figure out the parameter types. The fifth parameter is a pointer to an array of strings containing parameters. The next two parameters are only relevant with binary parameters. Passing 0 to the final parameter we obtain result in text format, 1 in binary format.

printf("%s %s %s\n", PQgetvalue(res, 0, 0),

    PQgetvalue(res, 0, 1), PQgetvalue(res, 0, 2));

We print the three fields of the specified row.

$ ./prepared_statement 4

4 Volvo 29000

This is the output of the example.

Metadata

Metadata is information about the data in the database. The following belongs to metadata: information about the tables and columns in which we store data, the number of rows affected by an SQL statement, or the number of rows and columns returned in a result set.

Column headers

In the first example, we print column headers.

column_headers.c

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <libpq-fe.h>

 

void do_exit(PGconn *conn) {

   

    PQfinish(conn);

    exit(1);

}

 

int main() {

   

    PGconn *conn = PQconnectdb("user=janbodnar dbname=testdb");

 

    if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD) {

       

        fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database failed: %s\n",

            PQerrorMessage(conn));

        do_exit(conn);

    }

   

    PGresult *res = PQexec(conn, "SELECT * FROM Cars WHERE Id=0");   

   

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_TUPLES_OK) {

 

        printf("No data retrieved\n");       

        PQclear(res);

        do_exit(conn);

    }      

   

    int ncols = PQnfields(res);

   

    printf("There are %d columns\n", ncols);

   

    printf("The column names are:\n");

   

    for (int i=0; i<ncols; i++) {

       

        char *name = PQfname(res, i);

        printf("%s\n", name);

    }

 

    PQclear(res);

    PQfinish(conn);

 

    return 0;

}

The example prints the number of available columns and their names to the console.

PGresult *res = PQexec(conn, "SELECT * FROM Cars WHERE Id=0");

In the SQL statement, we select all columns of a row.

int ncols = PQnfields(res);

The PQnfields function returns the number of columns in the row of the query result.

char *name = PQfname(res, i);

The PQfname() function returns the column name associated with the given column number.

$ ./column_headers

There are 3 columns

The column names are:

id

name

price

This is the output of the example.

Listing tables

The PostgreSQL's information schema consists of a set of views that contain information about the objects defined in the current database. The tables view contains all tables and views defined in the current database.

list_tables.c

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <libpq-fe.h>

 

void do_exit(PGconn *conn) {

   

    PQfinish(conn);

    exit(1);

}

 

int main() {

   

    PGconn *conn = PQconnectdb("user=janbodnar dbname=testdb");

 

    if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD) {

       

        fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database failed: %s\n",

            PQerrorMessage(conn));

        do_exit(conn);

    }

   

    PGresult *res = PQexec(conn, "SELECT table_name FROM information_schema.tables "

                    "WHERE table_schema = 'public'");   

   

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_TUPLES_OK) {

 

        printf("No data retrieved\n");       

        PQclear(res);

        do_exit(conn);

    }      

   

    int rows = PQntuples(res);

   

    for(int i=0; i<rows; i++) {

       

        printf("%s\n", PQgetvalue(res, i, 0));

    }       

   

    PQclear(res);

    PQfinish(conn);

 

    return 0;

}

The example prints all the tables in the testdb database.

PGresult *res = PQexec(conn, "SELECT table_name FROM information_schema.tables "

                "WHERE table_schema = 'public'");

This SQL statement selects all tables from the current database.

int rows = PQntuples(res);

 

for(int i=0; i<rows; i++) {

    

    printf("%s\n", PQgetvalue(res, i, 0));

}   

The tables are printed to the console.

$ ./list_tables

cars

authors

books

The list_tables program prints available tables in the testdb database.

Transactions

A transaction is an atomic unit of database operations against the data in one or more databases. SQL statements in a transaction can be either all committed to the database or all rolled back. SQL statements are put into transactions for data safety and integrity.

PostgreSQL operates in the autocommit mode. Every SQL statement is executed within a transaction: each individual statement has an implicit BEGIN and (if successful) COMMIT wrapped around it.

An explicit transaction is started with the BEGIN command and ended with the COMMIT command.

transaction.c

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <libpq-fe.h>

 

void do_exit(PGconn *conn) {

   

    PQfinish(conn);

    exit(1);

}

 

int main() {

   

    PGconn *conn = PQconnectdb("user=janbodnar dbname=testdb");

 

    if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD) {

       

        fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database failed: %s\n",

            PQerrorMessage(conn));

        do_exit(conn);

    }

 

    PGresult *res = PQexec(conn, "BEGIN");   

   

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

 

        printf("BEGIN command failed\n");       

        PQclear(res);

        do_exit(conn);

    }   

   

    PQclear(res);  

   

    res = PQexec(conn, "UPDATE Cars SET Price=23700 WHERE Id=8");   

   

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

 

        printf("UPDATE command failed\n");       

        PQclear(res);

        do_exit(conn);

    }   

   

    res = PQexec(conn, "INSERT INTO Cars VALUES(9,'Mazda',27770)");   

   

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

 

        printf("INSERT command failed\n");       

        PQclear(res);

        do_exit(conn);

    }      

   

    res = PQexec(conn, "COMMIT");

   

    if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK) {

 

        printf("COMMIT command failed\n");       

        PQclear(res);

        do_exit(conn);

    }      

   

    PQclear(res);     

    PQfinish(conn);

 

    return 0;

}

In the example, we update the price of a car and insert a new car. The two operations are included in a single transaction. This means that either both operations are executed or none.

PGresult *res = PQexec(conn, "BEGIN");

A transaction is started with the BEGIN command.

res = PQexec(conn, "UPDATE Cars SET Price=23700 WHERE Id=8");

We update the price of a car with Id 8.

res = PQexec(conn, "INSERT INTO Cars VALUES(9,'Mazda',27770)");

A new car is inserted into the Cars table.

res = PQexec(conn, "COMMIT");

The transaction is committed with the COMMIT command.

 

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